|INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGES
A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions.
A mixed (mixture) language is a language that arises when two languages are in contact and there is a high degree of bilingualism among speakers. (Occasionally, more than two languages may be involved.) A mixed language differs from a pidgin in that its speakers are fluent, even native, speakers of the languages involved in the mixture, whereas a pidgin develops when groups of people with no knowledge of each other's languages come into contact and have need of a basic communication system, e.g. for trade, but do not have enough contact to learn each other's language or to develop a lingua franca. A mixed language differs from a Creole in that a mixed language has not evolved from a pidgin, while a Creole has. Also, while creoles tend to have drastically reduced inflections, mixed languages sometimes retain the inflectional complexities of both parent languages. It differs from code-switching in that it is set in its grammar and vocabulary, rather than the choice being left to the mood of the speaker.
It is our view is that Memoni is a unwritten mixture of languages.
A dialect is a variety of a language used by people from a particular
geographic area. The number of speakers, and the area itself, can be of
arbitrary size. It follows that a dialect for a larger area can contain plenty
of (sub-) dialects, which in turn can contain dialects of yet smaller areas,
etc. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, and there are no
universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects,
although a number of paradigms exist, which render sometimes contradictory
results. The exact distinction is therefore a subjective one, dependent on the
user's frame of reference.
A dialect is a complete system of verbal communication (oral or signed but not
necessarily written) with its own vocabulary and/or grammar
sociolects, which are a variety of a language spoken by a certain social class,
Varieties of language such as dialects, idiolects and sociolects can be
distinguished not only by their vocabulary and grammar, but also by differences
in phonology (including prosody). If the distinctions are limited to phonology,
one often uses the term accent of a variety instead of variety or dialect.
Human languages are usually referred to as natural languages, and the science
studying them is linguistics. Making a principled distinction between one
language and another is usually impossible paying attention to the historical
evolution of languages results in a genetic classification of languages
The orthography of a language is the set
of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well
as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs (accent)
correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
English has become the world language because of its spelling,
English is the hardest European language to learn to read and rite.
For example, the spelling of the German personal name
Tzschaetzsch is inefficient, since it uses twelve letters to
represent five phonemes; a more efficient orthography might
represent it as Čäč or Cεc.