A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated.  Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions. 


A mixed (mixture) language is a language that arises when two languages are in contact and there is a high degree of bilingualism among speakers. (Occasionally, more than two languages may be involved.) A mixed language differs from a pidgin in that its speakers are fluent, even native, speakers of the languages involved in the mixture, whereas a pidgin develops when groups of people with no knowledge of each other's languages come into contact and have need of a basic communication system, e.g. for trade, but do not have enough contact to learn each other's language or to develop a lingua franca. A mixed language differs from a Creole in that a mixed language has not evolved from a pidgin, while a Creole has. Also, while creoles tend to have drastically reduced inflections, mixed languages sometimes retain the inflectional complexities of both parent languages. It differs from code-switching in that it is set in its grammar and vocabulary, rather than the choice being left to the mood of the speaker.

It is our view is that Memoni is a unwritten mixture of languages.

A dialect is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. The number of speakers, and the area itself, can be of arbitrary size.  It follows that a dialect for a larger area can contain plenty of (sub-) dialects, which in turn can contain dialects of yet smaller areas, etc. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, and there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects, although a number of paradigms exist, which render sometimes contradictory results. The exact distinction is therefore a subjective one, dependent on the user's frame of reference.  A dialect is a complete system of verbal communication (oral or signed but not necessarily written) with its own vocabulary and/or grammar   sociolects, which are a variety of a language spoken by a certain social class, Varieties of language such as dialects, idiolects and sociolects can be distinguished not only by their vocabulary and grammar, but also by differences in phonology (including prosody). If the distinctions are limited to phonology, one often uses the term accent of a variety instead of variety or dialect.

Human languages are usually referred to as natural languages, and the science studying them is linguistics. Making a principled distinction between one language and another is usually impossible paying attention to the historical evolution of languages results in a genetic classification of languages
paying attention to the internal structure of languages (grammar) results in a typological classification of languages—which is based on similarity of one or more components of the language's grammar across languages,

The world's languages have been grouped into families of languages that are believed to have common ancestors. Some of the major families are the Indo-European languages, the Afro-Asiatic languages, the Austronesian languages, and the Sino-Tibetan languages.


The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs (accent) correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.

The writing system of a language. English, for example, has an alphabet of 26 letters for both consonants and vowels, but no glyph (accent) for stress.  However, each English letter may represent more than one sound, and each English sound (phoneme) may be written by more than one letter. An example of an orthographic rule describing how letters are used is i before e except after c; another is that the plural is written with the letter s regardless of whether it is pronounced as an [s], as in cats, or as a [z], as in dogs. In addition, combinations of letters called digraphs, such as th, represent single sounds in English orthography. Other languages which use the same alphabet as English may not use the same digraphs.

English has become the world language because of its spelling, English is the hardest European language to learn to read and rite.
An orthography may be described as 'efficient' if it has one glyph per speech sound (phoneme) and vice versa, but few systems are perfect.

For example, the spelling of the German personal name Tzschaetzsch is inefficient, since it uses twelve letters to represent five phonemes; a more efficient orthography might represent it as Čäč or Cεc.

An orthography that does not represent all the sounds of a language, such as that of Italian or Arabic, is called 'defective'. Both inefficient and defective orthographies may motivate spelling